BÀI TẬP CÂU TRỰC TIẾP GIÁN TIẾP LỚP 8

A. Triết lý cần nắm

I. KHÁI NIỆM

1. Câu tường thuật là câu thuật lại khẩu ca trực tiếp.

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+ khẩu ca trực tiếp (direct speech): là biểu đạt lại đúng đúng chuẩn điều ai này đã nói (còn hotline là trích dẫn). Vẻ ngoài của câu khẩu ca trực tiếp sẽ được đặt trong vệt noặc kép.

Ví dụ: She said ” He is so handsome”. Theo đó, câu "He is so handsome" là lời nói trực tiếp hay câu trực tiếp

+ tiếng nói gián tiếp – câu tường thuật (indirect speech): Là trần thuật lại lời sẽ nói của một người khác dưới dạng con gián tiếp, không cần sử dụng dấu ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: Lylys said, ”I want lớn go home” -> Lylys said she wanted to go home là câu loại gián tiếp (indirect speech)

Khi chúng ta sử dụng câu con gián tiếp, bọn họ thường nói tới quá khứ, bởi vì vậy dạng tự của rượu cồn từ trong câu cũng được chia làm việc quá khứ.

2. Những loại câu tường thuật thịnh hành trong giờ đồng hồ Anh

2.1. Câu tường thuật nghỉ ngơi dạng câu kể

S + say(s)/said + (that) + S + V

+ says/say to + O -> tells/tell + O

+ said lớn + O ->told+O

Eg: He said to me”I haven’t finished my work” -> He told me he hadn’t finished his work.

2.2. Câu tường thuật sống dạng câu hỏi

a. Yes/No questions:

S+asked/wanted to lớn know/wondered+if/wether+S+V

Ex: ”Are you angry?”he asked -> He asked if/whether I was angry.

b. Wh-questions:

S + asked(+O)/wanted to know/wondered + Wh-words + S + V.

* says/say to + O -> asks/ask + O

* said to + O -> asked + O.

Ex: ”What are you talking about?”said the teacher. -> The teacher asked us what we were talking about.

II. CÁCH CHUYỂN CÂU TRỰC TIẾP thanh lịch CÂU GIÁN TIẾP

*

Khi đưa từ một lời nói trực tiếp sang con gián tiếp khá 1-1 giản, chúng ta chỉ nên ghép nội dung tường thuật làm việc phía sau lời nói và hạ rượu cồn từ của chính nó xuống một cấp quá khứ, đại trường đoản cú được biến đổi cho phù hợp. Mặc dù nhiên, cần lưu ý một số vụ việc sau:

+ Nếu động từ tường thuật (reporting verb) phân tách ở những thì hiện nay tại họ giữ nguyên thì (tense) của đụng từ chính, đại từ hướng dẫn và chỉ định và các trạng từ chỉ chỗ chốn cũng tương tự trạng tự chỉ thời hạn trong câu trực tiếp khi đưa sang con gián tiếp.Ví dụ:- He says: “I’m going to lớn Ha Noi next week.”

⇒ He says he is going to Ha Noi next week.

+ Nếu cồn từ trần thuật (reporting verb) của câu ở thì thừa khứ thì cần lùi cồn từ chủ yếu về thừa khứ một bậc khi chuyển từ khẩu ca trực tiếp (direct speech) sang khẩu ca gián tiếp (indirect / reported speech) theo phép tắc sau:

* biến hóa thì của cồn từ và hễ từ khuyết thiếu hụt theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu con gián tiếp

Present simplePast simple
Present continuousPast continuous
Present perfectPast perfect
Past simplePast perfect
Present perfect continuousPast perfect continuous
Past continuousPast perfect continuous
willwould
cancould
must/ have tohad to
maymight

* thay đổi đại tự và những từ hạn định theo bảng sau:

 

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Chủ ngữIhe/ she
YouI/ We/ They
WeWe/ They
Tân ngữmehim/ her
youme/ us/ them
usus/ them
Đại từ sở hữumyhis/ her
yourmy/ our/ their
ourour/ their
Đại từ bỏ sở hữuminehis/ hers
yoursmine/ ours/ theirs
oursours/ theirs
Đại trường đoản cú chỉ địnhthisthe/ that
thesethe/ those

* biến hóa trạng ngữ chỉ thời hạn và nơi chốn theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu con gián tiếp

herethere
nowthen/ at that moment
today/ tonightthat day/ that night
tomorrowthe next day
next weekthe following week
yesterdaythe previous daythe day before
last weekthe week before
agobefore

NOTE: Khi vận động từ các bạn chỉ cần nhớ lấy rượu cồn từ gần nhà ngữ nhất giảm xuống 1 cột tức là:

+ Động từ làm việc cột 1 thì sụt giảm cột 2, ( lưu giữ thêm ed khi chưa phải là đông từ bỏ bất quy tắc)

+ Động từ cột 2 thì bớt thành cột 3

+ Động từ bỏ cột 3 thêm had phía trước

Tuy nhiên, cần để ý một số ngôi trường hợp tiếp sau đây không giảm thì rượu cồn từ:

+ nói tới chân lý, sự thật.

+ Thì vượt khứ hoàn thành.

+ trong câu có năm xác định.

Các câu có cấu trúc sau: if only, as if, as though, wish, would rather, it’s high time, IF nhiều loại 2, 3 .

B. Bài tập


I. Dứt các câu trong bài xích câu tường thuật.

1. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.

She asked............................................. ......................

2. "How are you?" Martin asked us.

Martin asked us................................................ ...................

3. He asked, "Do I have to bởi vì it?"

He asked............................................. ......................

4. "Where have you been?" the mother asked her daughter.

The mother asked her daughter.......................................... .........................

5. "Which dress vì chưng you like best?" she asked her boyfriend.

She asked her boyfriend......................................... ..........................

6. "What are they doing?" she asked.

She wanted khổng lồ know.............................................. .....................

7. "Are you going lớn the cinema?" he asked me.

He wanted to know.............................................. .....................

8. The teacher asked, "Who speaks English?"

The teacher wanted to know.............................................. .....................

9. "How do you know that?" she asked me.

She asked me................................................ ...................

10. "Has Caron talked lớn Kevin?" my friend asked me.

My friend asked me................................................ ...................

Đáp án

1. She asked where her umbrella was.

2. Martin asked us how we were.

3. He asked if he had to vì chưng it.

4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.

5. She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best.

6. She wanted to know what they were doing.

7. He wanted to lớn know if I was going lớn the cinema.

8. The teacher wanted to know who spoke English.

9. She asked me how I knew that.

10. My friend asked me if Caron had talked to Kevin.

II. Viết lại các câu sau thực hiện cách nói loại gián tiếp.

1. “Open the door,” he said khổng lồ them.

- He told them...................................................................

2. “Where are you going?” he asked her.

- He asked her where.........................................................

3. “Which way did they go?” he asked.

- He asked... ......................................................................

4. “Bring it back if it doesn’t fit”, I said to lớn her.

- I told... ............................................................................

5. “Don’t try to mở cửa it now,” she said to lớn us.

- She told... ........................................................................

6. “Is it going khổng lồ be a fine day today?” I asked her.

- I asked her... ....................................................................

7. “He’s not at home”, she said.

- She said that... .................................................................

8. “Is the bus station far away?” the girl asked.

- The girl wanted to lớn know... ..............................................

9. “Don’t stay out late, Ann” Tom said.

- Tom told Ann... ...............................................................

10. “Please let me borrow your car,” he said khổng lồ her.

- He asked... ........................................................................

11. “Jean, have you seen my gloves?” Thomas asked.

- Thomas asked Jean.....

12. Don’t leave the window open, Mary”, I said.

- I told Mary.... ...................................................................

13. “I’ll have a cup of tea with you,” she said.


She said that...

14. “I’ll pay him if I can” she said.

- She said that... ...................................................................

15. “What are you going to vì next summer?” she asked.

- She asked us.... ...................................................................

16. “I’ll phone you tomorrow,” he told Jack.

- He told Jack that.... .............................................................

17. “Can I sit beside you, Jean?” Tom asked.

- Tom asked Jean.... ..............................................................

18. “I want a camera for my birthday,” he said.

- He said that.... ...................................................................

19. “Don’t keep the door locked,” he said khổng lồ us.

- He told us.... ...................................................................

20. “How long are you going khổng lồ stay?” I asked him.

- I asked him how long....

21. “Are you going by train?” she asked me.

- She wanted lớn know.... ..................................................

22. “Don’t use too much hot water,” she said khổng lồ us.

- She asked us.... ..............................................................

23. “Will you come to lớn my party?” she said to lớn me.

- She invited me.... ............................................................

24. “Don’t vì chưng it again,” she said to them.

She told them..................................................................

25. “ Did Mr Brown send the potatoes to lớn you?” she asked.

- She asked.......................................................................

26. “Don’t get your shoes dirty, boys,” she said.

- She told..........................................................................

27. “What bởi vì you want for lunch today, Peter?” Mary asked.

- Mary asked.......................................................................

28. “Can I borrow your typewriter, Janet?” asked Peter.

- Peter asked if .......................................................................

29. “Why didn’t I get a computer before?” thought the office manager.

- The office manager wondered............................................................

30. “You had better not lend him any more money, Elizabeth,’’ said John.

- John advised Elizabeth........................................................................

31. “You stole my best cassette, Amanda!” said John.

- John accused.......................................................................................

32. “ You damaged my bicycle, John!” said Mary.

- Mary accused......................................................................................

33. “When was your little boy born?” said the nurse to Mrs. Bingley.

- The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley...............................................................

34. “You should take more exercise, Mr. Robert,” the doctor said.

- The doctor advised................................................................................

35. “Will I find a job?”, Tim said khổng lồ himself.

- Tim wondered.......................................................................................

36. “I’m sorry I gave you the wrong number,” said Paul to Susan.

- Paul apologized.....................................................................................

37. “When is the first day of your holiday, Peter?” Martha asked.

- Martha asked Peter when.....................................................................

38. “Can I have a new bicycle?” said Anna khổng lồ her mother.

- Anna asked............................................................................................

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39.. “Don’t leave the house until I get back, William”, his mother said.

- William’s mother told..........................................................................

40. “Don’t bite your nails,” said Mrs. Rogers to lớn her son.

- Mrs. Rogers told....... .............................................................................

41. “I’ve seen the film three times, Mary” said George.

- George said............................................................................................

42. “I’m sorry, Angela,” said Martin, “I’m afraid I’ve damaged your car.

- Martin apologized..................................................................................

43. “Have you had enough for lunch?” the landlady asked us.

- The landlady asked................................................................................

44. “ John, please don’t tell anyone my new address,” said Mary.

- Mary asked............................................................................................

45. “Breakfast will not be served after 9. 30” said the notice.

- The notice said that..............................................................................

46. “Where is the best place khổng lồ buy souvenirs?”

- I asked..................................................................................................

47. “Don’t forget lớn bring your passport with you tomorrow”

- She reminded me ................................................................................

48. “Do not write on the wall,” said the teacher to the boys.

- The teacher told the boys………………………………………..........

49. “How many jobs have you had since 2000?” the interviewer asked Mr. Simpson.

- The interviewer asked ...........................................................................

50. “Why didn’t you report the incident to the police?” the officer asked the frightened witness.

- The officer wanted lớn know...................................................................

Đáp án

1. He told them to xuất hiện the door.

2. He asked her where she was going.

3. He asked me which way they had gone.

4. I told her to bring it back if it didn’t fit.

5. She told us not khổng lồ try to open it then.

6. I asked her whether/ if it was going to be a fine day that day.

7. She said that he was not at home.

8. The girl wanted lớn know whether/ if the bus station was far away.

9. Tom told Ann not khổng lồ stay out late.

10. He asked her lớn let him borrow her car.

11. Thomas asked Jean whether/if she had seen his gloves.

12. I told Mary not lớn leave the window open.

13. She said that she would have a cup of tea with me.

14. She said that she would pay him if she could.

15. She asked us what we were going to vì chưng the following summer.

16. He told Jack that he would phone him the following day.

17. Tom asked Jean whether/if he could sit beside her.

18. He said that he wanted a camera for his birthday.

19. He told us not to keep the door locked.

20. I asked him how long he was going to lớn stay.

21. She wanted lớn know whether I was going by train.

22. She asked us not khổng lồ use too much hot water.

23. She invited me lớn come to her party.

24. She told them not to bởi it again.

25. She asked whether/ if Mr. Brown sent the potatoes lớn me.

26. She told the boys not to get their shoes dirty.

27. Mary asked what Peter wanted for lunch that day.

28. Peter asked Janet whether/ if he could borrow her typewriter.

29. The office manager wondered why he hadn’t got a computer before.

30. John advised Elizabeth not to lend him any more money.

31. John accused Amanda of stealing his best cassette.

32. Mary accused John of damaging her bicycle.

33. The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley where her little boy had been born.

34. The doctor advised Mr. Robert khổng lồ take more exercise.

35. Tim wondered whether/ if he would find a job.

36. Paul apologized to lớn Susan for giving her the wrong number.

37. Martha asked Peter when the first day of his holiday was.

38. Anna asked her mother whether/ if she could have a new bicycle.

39. William’s mother told him not khổng lồ leave the house until she got back.

40. Mrs. Rogers told her son not to lớn bite his nails.

41. George said to lớn Mary that he had seen the film three times.

42. Martin apologized to Angela for having damaged her car.

43. The landlady asked us whether/if we had had enough for lunch.

44. Mary asked John not to lớn tell anyone her new address.

45. The notice said that breakfast would not be served after 9.30.

46. I asked where the best place to lớn buy souvenirs was.

47. She reminded me to bring my passport with me the following day.

48. The teacher told the boys not lớn write on the wall.

49. The interviewer asked Mr. Simpson how many jobs he had had since 2000.

50. The officer wanted to know why the frightened witness hadn’t reported the incident khổng lồ the police.

III. Kết thúc các câu trong bài xích câu tường thuật. để ý sự biến hóa của đại từ và các thì.

1. "What"s the time?" he asked.

→ He wanted lớn know .................................................. .

2. "When will we meet again?" she asked me.

→ She asked me .................................................. .

3. "Are you crazy?" she asked him.

→ She asked him .................................................. .

4. "Where did they live?" he asked.

→ He wanted to know .................................................. .

5. "Will you be at the party?" he asked her.

→ He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.

→ She asked me .................................................. .

7. "Who knows the answer?" the teacher asked.

→ The teacher wanted to know .................................................. .

8. "Why don"t you help me?" she asked him.

→ She wanted khổng lồ know .................................................. .

9. "Did you see that car?" he asked me.

→ He asked me .................................................. .

10. "Have you tidied up your room?" the mother asked the twins.

→ The mother asked the twins .................................................. .

Đáp án

1. He wanted to lớn know what the time was.

2. She asked me when we would meet again.

3. She asked him if he was crazy.

4. He wanted khổng lồ know where they had lived.

5. He asked her if she would be at the party.

6. She asked me if I could meet her at the station.

7. The teacher wanted to lớn know who knew the answer.

8. She wanted to know why he didn"t help her.

9. He asked me if I had seen that car.

10. The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

IV. Bài tập câu tường thuật requets (positive)

1. "Stop talking, Joe," the teacher said.

→ The teacher told Joe .................................................. .

2. "Be patient," she said to lớn him.

→ She told him .................................................. .

3. "Go lớn your room," her father said khổng lồ her.

→ Her father told her .................................................. .

4. "Hurry up," she said to lớn us.

→ She told us .................................................. .

5. "Give me the key," he told her.

→ He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Play it again, Sam," she said.

→ She asked Sam .................................................. .

7. "Sit down, Caron" he said.

→ He asked Caron .................................................. .

8. "Fill in the form, Sir," the receptionist said.

→ The receptionist asked the guest .................................................. .